There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some tree species, especially rhododendronapple and box myrtle. A characteristic feature of the Sub-Himalayas is the large number of long, flat-bottomed valleys known as duns, which are usually spindle-shaped and filled with gravelly alluvium.
The economy of the Himalayas as a whole is poor with low per capita income. The glaciers and snowfields of the Andes supply water to the arid coast of central South America as well as to the Amazon Basin. Karakoram Mountains The Karakoram meaning "black gravel" Mountains of Pakistan mark the western end of the greater Himalayan mountain chain and contain the greatest concentration of high peaks on earth.
Continental and ocean-floor rocks are crumpled and thrust over each other, sometimes along with slices of the mantle from under the ocean floor, and often pierced with volcanoes that erupt masses of molten material squeezed out of deeply buried crust.
The movement of the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region seismically active, leading to earthquakes from time to time.
Sea level closer to the equator is several kilometres farther from the centre of the Earth. The monsoon can seriously impact transport and cause major landslides. Deforestation is a particular concern in the western Himalayas, where increased demand for firewood, extensive tree trimming in order to feed livestock, and construction of roads in the border regions have increased the destruction rate of forests and the number of landslides.
People living in remote, isolated valleys have generally preserved their cultural identities. The high latitude and elevation of Mongolia and western China are responsible for the cold winters in these areas. List of Himalayan peaks and passes In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepalseparated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge.
Nineteen major rivers, including the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra, begin in the Himalayas.
The western rivers combine into the Indus Basin. Introduction The Himalayas are a dominating mountain range.
Most of them are covered with snow from November to May and are impossible to cross. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan.
Ecology of the Himalayas Captive snow leopard The flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. In the Middle Himalayas at elevations between and m between and 12, ft natural vegetation consists of many species of pine, oak, rhododendron, poplar, walnut, and larch.
Finally, some people place a great importance on jewellery. The northern part was forest inhabited by wild animals until about the s.
Introduction The highest mountains on Earth are found in the Himalayas. This contributes to economic and modern industrial development both inside and outside the region. Although locals are clearing out portions of the forests in the Himalayas, there is still a large amount of greenery ranging from the tropical forests to the Alpine forests.
Stretching around Northern Italy from Monaco through France, Switzerland, and Austria to Slovenia, the Alps contain many huge flat-lying folds called nappes, in which rocks from the vanished ocean Tethys are stacked on top of European rocks, and in turn covered by rocks from Africa.
Elbrus 18, feetthe highest mountain in Europe and one of the Seven Summits. They are now restricted to special protected areas such as the Jaldapara and Kaziranga sanctuaries in India see Kaziranga National Park and the Chitawan preserve in Nepal.
Considerations[ edit ] Figure demonstrating the concept of topographic prominence: Lake Puma Yumco is one of the highest of the larger lakes at an elevation of m.
Formerly an independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to LhasaTibet, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. The Indus itself forms the northern and western boundaries of the Himalayas. Environmental Issues Economic changes and population increases are threatening the ecology of the Himalayas.
There is also gold, silver, copper, zinc, and many other such minerals and metals located in at least different places in these mountains. Mountains can also create their own micro-climates with consideration to the terrain and elevation. A wide variety of fruits are grown in each of the major zones of the Himalayas, and making fruit juices is a major industry in Nepal, Bhutan, and in the Indian Himalayas.
This gives rise to a variety of climates from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra and permanent snow and ice. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Perihowever, are also sometimes also included in the Himalayas.
The height of the Himalayan Mountains concentrates most of the monsoonal rainfall on the Indian Subcontinent.Watch video · The highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan range is far-reaching, spanning thousands of miles, and holds within it an exceptionally diverse ecology.
The 10 highest mountains on Earth, called the "eight-thousanders," are all located in the Himalayas. Mount Everest is the tallest.
Photos: The World's Tallest Mountains. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest.
The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7, metres (23, ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,metre peaks.
Himalayas, Nepali Himalaya, great mountain system of Asia forming a barrier between the Plateau of Tibet to the north and the alluvial plains of the Indian subcontinent to the south. The Himalayas include the highest mountains in the world, with more than peaks rising to elevations of 24, feet (7, metres) or more above sea level.
Watch video · NATURE takes us on a stunning journey to the Himalayas. From Everest to the Tibetan Plateau, from the Gaumukh to the Ganges, this episode introduces us to a complex, interconnected natural world that continues to inspire, challenge and amaze the human race.
Mount Everest or Qomolangma is the highest mountain in the world, with a peak at 8, metres (29, ft) above sea level. It is also the tallest mountain in the world from base to peak.
Mount Everest is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas.Download